Astronomy and Space

Advances in the investigation of the physical universe we live in.

Russian space rocket engines, are they better ?

Postby Heracleum Persicum » Fri Jan 16, 2015 6:48 pm

.



“We are committed to deliver 60 engines. Three options have been signed, each for 20 engines,”


Russia’s government has already issued all the permits required for the deal. The contract envisages restrictions for the use of RD-181 engines in military programs as those rockets cannot be used for military goals



cost and reliability key .. Russian engine very reliable and cheap .. one engine which exploded recently, was "modified" against the manufacturer's recommendation


.
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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Typhoon » Wed Jan 21, 2015 12:18 am

The Paradoxes That Threaten To Tear Modern Cosmology Apart

Some simple observations about the universe seem to contradict basic physics. Solving these paradoxes could change the way we think about the cosmos.
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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Typhoon » Fri Jan 30, 2015 6:26 pm

Typhoon wrote:The Paradoxes That Threaten To Tear Modern Cosmology Apart

Some simple observations about the universe seem to contradict basic physics. Solving these paradoxes could change the way we think about the cosmos.


Quanta | Joint Dust Analysis Deflates Big Bang Signal

Last March, when a group of astronomers announced that they had detected faint swirls in the sky that almost certainly reflected undulations in the shape of the early universe, experts agreed it could be one of the greatest cosmological discoveries of all time. If confirmed, the undulating “gravitational waves” would amount to near-proof of the Big Bang theory known as inflation, and their magnitude would reveal exactly how energetically the universe inflated 13.8 billion years ago, when, according to the theory, it grew from a speck in a fraction of a second.

But soon, many had doubts. The rising skepticism was validated this week, with a definitive analysis showing that the swirl pattern detected by the astronomers fits the profile of radiating space dust rather than gravitational waves.

Scientists cross-checked the data, which were gathered by the BICEP2 telescope, pixel-for-pixel against observations by the Planck telescope, which was better attuned to differences between dust and gravitational waves. The analysis confirmed what a previous Planck study suggested: Dust obscuring the patch of the sky probed by BICEP2 generated most if not all of the observed swirl pattern.
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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Endovelico » Mon Feb 02, 2015 6:16 pm

Iran sends its fourth satellite into space

Image

Iran has successfully placed into orbit the domestically-made Fajr (Dawn) satellite.

The satellite is capable of staying in the space for 1.5 years and taking and transmitting high-quality and accurate pictures to stations on earth.

Fajr satellite is technically characterized by an orbit which could promote from 250 to 450 kilometers through a thruster or an engine.

It is the new generation of Omid (Hope) satellite, which was designed and manufactured by Iranian experts in 2009.
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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Typhoon » Sun Feb 15, 2015 1:41 am

All the world's a stage.
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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Doc » Sun Feb 15, 2015 3:40 am

Endovelico wrote:Iran sends its fourth satellite into space

Image

Iran has successfully placed into orbit the domestically-made Fajr (Dawn) satellite.

The satellite is capable of staying in the space for 1.5 years and taking and transmitting high-quality and accurate pictures to stations on earth.

Fajr satellite is technically characterized by an orbit which could promote from 250 to 450 kilometers through a thruster or an engine.

It is the new generation of Omid (Hope) satellite, which was designed and manufactured by Iranian experts in 2009.


Congratulations to Iran they beat these guys by 43 miles

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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Heracleum Persicum » Sun Feb 15, 2015 4:08 am

Doc wrote:
Endovelico wrote:Iran sends its fourth satellite into space

Image

Iran has successfully placed into orbit the domestically-made Fajr (Dawn) satellite.

The satellite is capable of staying in the space for 1.5 years and taking and transmitting high-quality and accurate pictures to stations on earth.

Fajr satellite is technically characterized by an orbit which could promote from 250 to 450 kilometers through a thruster or an engine.

It is the new generation of Omid (Hope) satellite, which was designed and manufactured by Iranian experts in 2009.


Congratulations to Iran they beat these guys by 43 miles




.



These days, the technology, the mathematic, production, control and everything else, to built a missile to
go to Moon let alone put a satellite in an orbit is "rudimentary" .. pretty much everybody can do it if they want and is ready to spend the $$$.

The significance of Iran putting it's 4th satellite in orbit is not Iran dominating the technology

The significant is Iran doing all this under a "complete sanction in all domains" .. Iranian scientist are assassinated by CIA/Mossad .. computers sabotaged

Reminds me of the "joke" the heart surgeon saying to mechanic repairing his motorcycle engine, try to do it engine running

If you intention is to belittle Iranian space scientist, must remind you :


43% of NASA scientists are Iranians

Proffessor Mohammad Jamshidi , internal programm manager of NASA Space station

Firuz Nader , Executive manager at Mars NASA Space Station

Hamid Berenhi , member of scientists of NASA space station

Qasem Asrar,NASA Space Station Board Member

Kazem Omidvar, Member of scientists of NASA's space station

Reza Qaffarian, Engineer of Jet Propulsion Laboratory of NASA space station

Proffessor Parviz Moein, Head of Central Research Institute of the University of NASA

Proffessor Samad Hayati, NASA Space Station Board Member

Abdolhamid Karimi, works on space missiles in NASA

Dr Moqhadam(female) works on radars in NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory



.
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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Doc » Sun Feb 15, 2015 4:25 am

Heracleum Persicum wrote:
Doc wrote:
Endovelico wrote:Iran sends its fourth satellite into space

Image

Iran has successfully placed into orbit the domestically-made Fajr (Dawn) satellite.

The satellite is capable of staying in the space for 1.5 years and taking and transmitting high-quality and accurate pictures to stations on earth.

Fajr satellite is technically characterized by an orbit which could promote from 250 to 450 kilometers through a thruster or an engine.

It is the new generation of Omid (Hope) satellite, which was designed and manufactured by Iranian experts in 2009.


Congratulations to Iran they beat these guys by 43 miles




.



These days, the technology, the mathematic, production, control and everything else, to built a missile to
go to Moon let alone put a satellite in an orbit is "rudimentary" .. pretty much everybody can do it if they want and is ready to spend the $$$.

The significance of Iran putting it's 4th satellite in orbit is not Iran dominating the technology

The significant is Iran doing all this under a "complete sanction in all domains" .. Iranian scientist are assassinated by CIA/Mossad .. computers sabotaged

Reminds me of the "joke" the heart surgeon saying to mechanic repairing his motorcycle engine, try to do it engine running

If you intention is to belittle Iranian space scientist, must remind you :


43% of NASA scientists are Iranians

Proffessor Mohammad Jamshidi , internal programm manager of NASA Space station

Firuz Nader , Executive manager at Mars NASA Space Station

Hamid Berenhi , member of scientists of NASA space station

Qasem Asrar,NASA Space Station Board Member

Kazem Omidvar, Member of scientists of NASA's space station

Reza Qaffarian, Engineer of Jet Propulsion Laboratory of NASA space station

Proffessor Parviz Moein, Head of Central Research Institute of the University of NASA

Proffessor Samad Hayati, NASA Space Station Board Member

Abdolhamid Karimi, works on space missiles in NASA

Dr Moqhadam(female) works on radars in NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory



.



43%? Really AZ? AS I understand it Brian Williams is a rocket scientist as well. Also the amateurs really can't compete with Iran. They have no means to build atomic warheads. Let alone put them on a missle. BUt if it is any consolation I have a couple of friends that are Iranian and NASA engineers.
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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Heracleum Persicum » Sun Feb 15, 2015 4:43 am

Doc wrote:
Heracleum Persicum wrote:.

If you intention is to belittle Iranian space scientist, must remind you :


43% of NASA scientists are Iranians

Proffessor Mohammad Jamshidi , internal programm manager of NASA Space station

Firuz Nader , Executive manager at Mars NASA Space Station

Hamid Berenhi , member of scientists of NASA space station

Qasem Asrar,NASA Space Station Board Member

Kazem Omidvar, Member of scientists of NASA's space station

Reza Qaffarian, Engineer of Jet Propulsion Laboratory of NASA space station

Proffessor Parviz Moein, Head of Central Research Institute of the University of NASA

Proffessor Samad Hayati, NASA Space Station Board Member

Abdolhamid Karimi, works on space missiles in NASA

Dr Moqhadam(female) works on radars in NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory



.



43 % ? Really AZ ? AS I understand it Brian Williams is a rocket scientist as well. Also the amateurs really can't compete with Iran. They have no means to build atomic warheads. Let alone put them on a missle. BUt if it is any consolation I have a couple of friends that are Iranian and NASA engineers.

.



That's what the article I linked says .. 2b frank, seems bit high even to me :lol: .. but there is a list of names and positions in Wiki

So happy to hear you have some Iranian friends

Am sure, now that our beloved America decided to change horse and sign on the doted line of "Great Bargain", the two nations will be "good friends"

What you think about this clip ? ? :lol: :lol:





(the disaster for America) comes with BiBi guaranty, with such friends who needs enemies

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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Doc » Sun Feb 15, 2015 7:23 am

Heracleum Persicum wrote:
Doc wrote:
Heracleum Persicum wrote:.

If you intention is to belittle Iranian space scientist, must remind you :


43% of NASA scientists are Iranians

Proffessor Mohammad Jamshidi , internal programm manager of NASA Space station

Firuz Nader , Executive manager at Mars NASA Space Station

Hamid Berenhi , member of scientists of NASA space station

Qasem Asrar,NASA Space Station Board Member

Kazem Omidvar, Member of scientists of NASA's space station

Reza Qaffarian, Engineer of Jet Propulsion Laboratory of NASA space station

Proffessor Parviz Moein, Head of Central Research Institute of the University of NASA

Proffessor Samad Hayati, NASA Space Station Board Member

Abdolhamid Karimi, works on space missiles in NASA

Dr Moqhadam(female) works on radars in NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory



.



43 % ? Really AZ ? AS I understand it Brian Williams is a rocket scientist as well. Also the amateurs really can't compete with Iran. They have no means to build atomic warheads. Let alone put them on a missle. BUt if it is any consolation I have a couple of friends that are Iranian and NASA engineers.

.



That's what the article I linked says .. 2b frank, seems bit high even to me :lol: .. but there is a list of names and positions in Wiki

So happy to hear you have some Iranian friends

Am sure, now that our beloved America decided to change horse and sign on the doted line of "Great Bargain", the two nations will be "good friends"

What you think about this clip ? ? :lol: :lol:





(the disaster for America) comes with BiBi guaranty, with such friends who needs enemies

.


What do I think?

1)Iran is building missies to carry atomic bombs.
2)There was plenty of positive change in the ME until Obama blew it.
3)The republicans may win NY in 2016 and certainly will win Florida.
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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Nonc Hilaire » Sun Feb 22, 2015 2:11 pm

Brief summary Rosetta's exploration of comet 67P. The speaker finds evidence that water is not melted off the surface, but instead is formed internally from molecular O & H, and is ionized from the core as solar wind increases.

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Electric Universe Theory.....

Postby monster_gardener » Thu Feb 26, 2015 2:32 am

Nonc Hilaire wrote:Brief summary Rosetta's exploration of comet 67P. The speaker finds evidence that water is not melted off the surface, but instead is formed internally from molecular O & H, and is ionized from the core as solar wind increases.



Thank You Very Much for your post, Nonc Hilaire,

Interesting......

I had not heard of the Electric Universe theory....

Toward the end it seemed to get a bit odd about Venus, comets and catastrophes....

Started to remind me of Velikovsky.....

So I decided to do some Googling.....

Here is some of what I found...

Pro.....

The Electric Universe theory argues that electricity plays a more important role in the Universe, than is generally accepted (see also "Electricity throughout the Universe").

As a theory, it offers explanations of various natural and astrophysical phenomena, some of which it claims are better understood without the need for various ad hoc explanations. As with any theory, the Electric Universe makes predictions that have been tested, and is published in both peer-reviewed papers, and popular books.

The Electric Universe theory is interdisciplinary, integrating and supporting subject as diverse as the science (astronomy, geology, physics), with the soft sciences such as ancient history and comparative mythology.

Perhaps not surprisingly, the Electric Universe has also become the target of pseudo-skeptics, whose criticisms have consisted of ad hominems, misunderstanding, misrepresentation, and labeling as pseudoscience.


http://www.electricuniverse.info/Electr ... rse_theory

http://www.holoscience.com/wp/synopsis/ ... e-history/

http://www.holoscience.com/wp/synopsis/ ... -universe/

Con.....

The "Electric Universe" (EU) is an umbrella term that covers various pseudo-scientific cosmological ideas built around the claim that the formation and existence of various features of the universe can be better explained by electromagnetism than by gravity. The exact claims are diverse and vary from crank to crank author to author. A common motif is the insistence that all science should be done in a laboratory — an attempt to throw away gravity from the very beginning, because one can't put a solar system or a galaxy in a laboratory. Most Electric Universe proponents claim some kind of relation to the "plasma cosmology" of the Nobel Prize laureate Hannes Alfvén. Too bad his model was rendered obsolete by the missing observations of the radio emission predicted by his cosmology.[2]

EU advocates can be roughly split into two groups: garden-variety physics cranks who are convinced that they have a legitimate revolutionary scientific theory, and various woo-peddlers who use EU claims to prop their main ideas (because mainstream physics would blow them apart). One subset of the latter comprises some of the more loony global warming deniers (such as Vault-Co), who try to use it to "prove" that climate change is being caused by some process outside human control.

Immanuel Velikovsky was an enthusiatic early adopter of electric universe ideas, seeing in them a possible mechanism to explain his scenario of planetary billiards, cosmic thunderbolts, and the notion that Earth was previously a satellite of Saturn.



http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Electric_Universe

I kept hearing about this theory called the “electric universe theory”, and wondered what it was all about. An ex-work colleague was quite worked up about it and even lent me some books. What was this theory and where on earth did it come from?

According to the website http://www.electricuniverse.info the “Electric Universe theory highlights the importance of electricity throughout the Universe. It is based on the recognition of existing natural electrical phenomena (eg. lightning, St Elmo’s Fire), and the known properties of plasmas (ionized “gases”) which make up 99.999% of the visible universe, and react strongly to electro-magnetic fields.” It goes on to state “Electricity is common throughout the universe, generated by all cosmic plasma as it moves through magnetic fields. Peer reviewed papers describe electricity in the Sun, and associated with the interplanetary medium (solar wind), planets and their satellites, comets, in interstellar space, other stars, and intergalactic space.” Well that sounds pretty convincing, doesn’t it?

We astronomers often stumble across new theories, and after a while a certain degree of ‘learned scepticism’ enters the fray. So I decided to take a closer look at this theory. The theory seemed to be all encompassing and rather difficult to pin down, so in order to do this, I focused on what the theory has to say about our sun in particular. Astrophysicists say that stars, including the sun, are powered by nuclear fusion. However electric universe theorists say this is not so. The reasons given are that:

we haven’t yet found the neutrinos that must be emitted from such a reaction;
that the granular structure we see on the sun would not be possible, because convection is impossible due to the conditions there;
the energy emitted from the sun does not display the inverse square law;
periodic fluctuations in the sun’s output resemble electric discharge patterns; and
the solar wind is and effect of charged particles being accelerated in an electric field.

Well that all sounds very plausible and ‘scientificy’. But let’s take a closer look at the arguments one by one.

Neutrinos have not been found?

A neutrino is a particle smaller than an atom with an incredibly small mass to it. They are similar to electrons, but don’t have a charge. They usually travel close to the speed of light, and not having a charge means they are unaffected by electromagnetic forces like other matter, and are able to pass through ordinary matter almost unaffected.

Neutrino observatories are actually underground because the neutrinos pass right through the earth. Neutrinos are created as a by-product result of nuclear fusion (in a nuclear plant or the sun) or when cosmic rays hit atoms. Every second about 65 billion solar neutrinos pass through every square centimetre of earth facing the Sun. Because they have a mass, neutrinos can interact with other particles via gravity.

Scientists have been detecting the effects of neutrinos for years, and they match the predictions exactly. If an alternative theory is to be considered, scientists would need to reject the theory of nuclear fusion at the centre of a star. This would also necessarily lead to rejection of the theories of thermodynamics, gravitation, nuclear physics, statistical physics, electromagnetism, hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics. In other words, most of physics would need to be rejected to address the problem of the ‘missing’ neutrinos.

Electric universe theorists argue that these neutrinos have never been detected, and those inferred by their effects are about half of what would be produced by a fusion reaction in the sun.

Some of you will be familiar with quantum mechanics, where all particles can have both wave and particle properties. Well, neutrinos are confusing too, as they have mass and therefore qualify as a particle. When they are detected they have a probability of being either an electron neutrino or a tau neutrino. We have electron neutrino detectors, and once we build a tau neutrino detector the ‘flux’ will add up to the exact amount to solve the solar problem. So maybe it is a bit premature to throw physics out just yet.

Convection in the sun is impossible?

Electric universe theory argues that the granulation we observe on the surface of the sun cannot be caused by convection bubbling up the layers of the sun. This is based on an assumption by a man called Juergen, that one of the values used in fluid dynamics, the Reynolds number, causes the convection, and at certain values convection cannot occur.
If you imagine a parcel of matter inside the sun towards the surface as the sun’s heat causes it to rise and falling back towards the centre as it cools (like boiling water), the Reynolds number describes a function of the parcel size, length and stickiness.

Juergen assumes that the Reynolds number controls convection but it doesn’t; convection is controlled by the Rayleigh number. The Rayleigh number is a function of the temperature, gravity, the degree of temperature change, stickiness and how diffuse the temperature is. So Juergen made a mistake, oops. The convection that we see on the sun can be explained without throwing away physics.

The sun’s energy breaks the inverse square law?

In physics, the inverse square law states that a specified physical quantity or strength is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity. So in other words if you move from two metres to four metres away from a heater you increase the distance by two, but decrease the energy by four times (four is the square
of two). Electric universe theory says that because the sun is coolest at its surface, then the temperature jumps up again out at its halo, it does not obey the inverse square law, and physics is wrong.

At this point it is important to note that the inverse square law only applies to radiant energy (as opposed to convection or conduction) and only in a vacuum. When energy moves through an atmosphere (such as the corona of the Sun) then the law does not hold. In addition, the inverse square law applies to all energy, not just heat. The colder ‘surface’ (photosphere) actually has more energy. The energy drops dramatically at the corona as we would expect. There are a myriad of explanations for the temperature differences, none of which involve throwing out physics as we know it.

The sun’s variations prove it is a bag of plasma?

Electric universe theory says that the variations in the sun every 2 hours and 40 minutes or
so can only be explained if the sun was a big bag of gas undergoing periodic electrical discharge. Juergen cites some research that shows this period is what we would expect from a homogenous sphere, rather than the accepted layered model of the sun found in
textbooks. Well that is a problem ... isn’t it?
OK, time for some context here. The research cited was in 1976 and the authors stated that it applies only if they are p-mode oscillations. But back then we didn’t have the technology to distinguish between p-mode and g-mode oscillations. Later research, available to the electric universe theorists, showed they were gmode, so basically all the assumptions based on this research went out the window. It doesn’t matter too much what the modes are, the point is that the electric universe theory was based on outdated information from 1976. Very poor research indeed!

The solar wind is caused by an electric field?

In physics an electric field applied to charged particles cause them to accelerate. The
Electric universe theory says that the solar wind is the result of such a field, and the Sun is electric, not fusion based.

Maxwell’s theory of acceleration, however, talks about a time variable field, not a fixed one, and what’s more the solar wind contains both positive and negatively charged ions (protons and electrons mainly). An electric sun would be positively charged and all the negatively charged electrons would be attached to it – not be pushed out from the Sun on a solar wind. This fact proves the Sun is not electric.

And then the wheels fell off…

Hmmm. Towards the end of my research I found a notation on Wikipedia about why “Electric Universe Theory” had been removed. Apparently there are only a few people who currently publish ideas on the “electric universe” and those people publish exclusively on the internet or vanity presses. They use very misleading citations gleaned from mainstream sources in an attempt to lend credibility to the “electric universe theory”. Most papers listed as peer reviewed are not about the “electric universe” but about plasma cosmology (a different idea). The “electric universe” has no single paper subject to peer review about its ideas.

Well, it seems this is not a theory that anyone should be hanging their hat on. However, I will say that my little exploration did lead me to learn an awful lot about neutrinos, and our Sun. I hope that next time you read an outlandish theory you might take this journey too. You never know what you might learn.


http://neutrinodreaming.blogspot.com/20 ... unked.html

This is more Typhoon's speciality than mine but I come down on the side of traditional physics....

Gravity is weaker but has infinite reach....

And is not divided into positive and negative 'particles'.....

Which tend to cancel each other out into neutrality....
For the love of G_d, consider you & I may be mistaken.
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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Typhoon » Thu Feb 26, 2015 8:46 pm

Have to say that I had never heard of the "electric universe" hypothesis.

mg did a good job of debunking it.

Alternative theories are fine, that how progress is often made, but they must be able to account for existing observations.
Ignoring/denying an observation, such as solar neutrinos, because it not explained by one's theory is a big red flag that suggests crackpot.

On the other hand, there is a hypothesis that the earth's water came from comets and asteroids.

The ESA Rosetta mission reignited this debate by it's finding that the heavy water/water ratio of the water vapour from comet
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko is different that that found on earth:

http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space ... h_s_oceans
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Thank You VERY MUCH for the Kind Words.

Postby monster_gardener » Fri Feb 27, 2015 11:27 pm

Typhoon wrote:Have to say that I had never heard of the "electric universe" hypothesis.

mg did a good job of debunking it.

Alternative theories are fine, that how progress is often made, but they must be able to account for observations.
Ignoring/denying an observation, such as solar neutrinos, because it not explained by one's theory is a big red flag -> crackpot.

On the other hand, there is a hypothesis that the earth's water came from comets and asteroids.

The ESA Rosetta mission reignited this debate by it's finding that the heavy water/water ratio of the water vapour from comet
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko is different that that found on earth:

http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space ... h_s_oceans



Thank You VERY MUCH for your post, Typhoon,

mg did a good job of debunking it.


And Thank You VERY MUCH for the Kind Words.
For the love of G_d, consider you & I may be mistaken.
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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Endovelico » Tue Mar 03, 2015 1:11 pm

US military satellite explodes above Earth
By Matthew Sparkes

A US military satellite exploded after detecting an unexplained “sudden spike in temperature”, sending dozens of chunks of debris tumbling into different orbits around Earth.

Civilian company CelesTrak was first to notice the explosion of the once-secret weather satellite and the US Air Force subsequently confirmed that it had been lost.

The satellite was an ageing component of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program which the US military began developing the in the 1960s to help plan reconnaissance and surveillance missions.

In 1972 the system was declassified, and data made available to civilian scientists.

The lost satellite was the 13th to be launched as part of DMSP, designated DMSP-F13, and had been in Earth orbit since 1995.

Air Force Space Command confirmed to SpaceNews.com that the “catastrophic event” came after “a sudden spike in temperature” was detected, followed by “an unrecoverable loss of attitude control”.

While operators were deciding how to “render the vehicle safe” they detected a debris cloud which indicated that the satellite had been destroyed.

The explosion has caused at least 43 pieces of debris to scatter into orbit, which are now being tracked by the US Air Force.

Air Force Col. John Giles, the Joint Space Operations Center’s director, told SpaceNews.com: “While the initial response is complete, JSpOC personnel will continue to assess this event to learn more about what happened and what it will mean for users within this orbit."

Due to the age of DMSP-F13 it was no longer a critical part of the network, and the US government expects that its loss will cause only a “slight reduction” in real-time weather data.

Like all DMSP satellites it orbited the earth at an altitude of around 500 miles in a “sun-synchronous orbit” – meaning that they flew in a path taking in the north and south poles.

On each path around the earth, which took roughly 101 minutes, they would see a slightly different part of the planet. This would give each satellite a complete view of the entire planet’s surface twice a day.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/11444155/US-military-satellite-explodes-above-Earth.html


Is anyone thinking what I am thinking?... :twisted:
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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Doc » Wed Mar 04, 2015 11:00 pm

^^^
Sounds like someone was taking target practice.

Maybe the boys have new toys

viewtopic.php?p=86431#p86431
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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Doc » Fri Mar 06, 2015 8:22 pm

A star may only die once, but you can watch it scream forever


http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/06/scien ... pe=article
Astronomers Watch a Supernova and See Reruns


MARCH 5, 2015

Out There | Einstein’s Telescope

A century after Albert Einstein proposed that gravity could bend light, astronomers now rely on galaxies or even clusters of galaxies to magnify distant stars.
Video by Jason Drakeford, Jonathan Corum and Dennis Overbye on Publish Date March 5, 2015.

Dennis Overbye

OUT THERE

It’s “Groundhog Day” in the cosmos.

In the 1993 Bill Murray movie, a weatherman finds himself reliving the same day over and over again. Now astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope say they have been watching the same star blow itself to smithereens in a supernova explosion over and over again, thanks to a trick of Einsteinian optics.

The star exploded more than nine billion years ago on the other side of the universe, too far for even the Hubble to see without special help from the cosmos. In this case, however, light rays from the star have been bent and magnified by the gravity of an intervening cluster of galaxies so that multiple images of it appear.

Four of them are arranged in a tight formation known as an Einstein Cross surrounding one of the galaxies in the cluster. Since each light ray follows a different path from the star to here, each image in the cross represents a slightly different moment in the supernova explosion.

An artist’s conception of two black holes in close orbit. In the distant future, scientists expect two black holes to collide and give off a huge amount of energy.

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This is the first time astronomers have been able to see the same explosion over and over again, and its unique properties may help them better understand not only the nature of these spectacular phenomena but also cosmological mysteries like dark matter and how fast the universe is expanding.


Multiple images of the Supernova Refsdal, appearing over time. Credit NASA and European Space Agency

“I was sort of astounded,” said Patrick Kelly of the University of California, Berkeley, who discovered the supernova images in data recorded by the space telescope in November. “I was not expecting anything like that at all.”

Dr. Kelly is lead author of a report describing the supernova published on Thursday in the journal Science.

Robert Kirshner, a supernova expert at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics who was not involved in the work, said: “We’ve seen gravitational lenses before, and we’ve seen supernovae before. We’ve even seen lensed supernovae before. But this multiple image is what we have all been hoping to see.”

Supernovas are among the most violent and rare events in the universe, occurring perhaps once per century in a typical galaxy. They outshine entire galaxies, spewing elemental particles like oxygen and gold out into space to form the foundations of new worlds, and leaving behind crushed remnants called neutron stars or black holes.



Because of the galaxy cluster standing between this star and the Hubble, “basically, we got to see the supernova four times,” Dr. Kelly said. And the explosion is expected to appear again in another part of the sky in the next 10 years. Timing the delays between its appearances, he explained, will allow astronomers to refine measurements of how fast the universe is expanding and to map the mysterious dark matter that supplies the bulk of the mass and gravitational oomph of the universe.

The heavens continue to light candles for Albert Einstein. On March 14 he would have been 136, and this year marks a century since his greatest achievement, the general theory of relativity that transformed our understanding of space, time and gravity. Dr. Kelly’s paper appears in a special issue of Science devoted to the anniversary of that theory.

Continue reading the main story

Continue reading the main story

Einstein proposed that matter and energy warp the geometry of space the way a heavy body sags a mattress, producing the effect we call gravity. One consequence of this was that even light rays would be bent by gravity and follow a curved path around massive objects like the sun, as dramatically confirmed during a solar eclipse in 1919.

In effect, space itself could become a telescope.

How this cosmic telescope works depends on how the stars are aligned. If a star and its intervening lens are slightly out of line, the distant light can appear as arcs. If they are exactly lined up, the more distant star can appear as a halo known as an Einstein ring, or as evenly separated images — the Einstein Cross.

Astronomers have learned how to use entire galaxies and galaxy clusters as telescopes to see fainter objects beyond them that would otherwise be lost in the fog of time.

Hubble scientists have recently been using this trick in a program known as Glass, or Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space, to explore around clusters of galaxies, the most massive and thus most powerful gravitational lenses in the universe. This has enabled them to extend Hubble’s already powerful vision deeper into the past, in one case to a galaxy that existed when the universe was only half a billion years old.

Dr. Kelly’s job was to inspect the images for distant supernovas. He was not expecting to see four versions of the same explosion at once.

They appeared in images recorded in November of a spiral galaxy roughly nine billion light-years from here. The light from this spiral has been bent and magnified both by the gravity of the intervening cluster, which is five billion light-years distant, and by one very massive galaxy in the cluster.

As a result, ghost images of the spiral appear throughout the cluster and in particular in an Einstein Cross around that one galaxy. Because the lensing effect gathers light that would not otherwise be sent to our eyes or a telescope, the image of the host galaxy is not split so much as multiplied, explained Adi Zitrin, a team member from the California Institute of Technology.

“We simply see more appearances than we would if the lens were not present,” he said.

So far the supernova, named after a Norwegian astrophysicist, Sjur Refsdal, has been detected in only the four images in the Einstein cross. Based on computer modeling of the cluster, Dr. Kelly and his colleagues suspect that Supernova Refsdal has appeared before, around 1964 and 1995, in other lensed images of the spiral galaxy.

It should appear again elsewhere in the same cluster within the next few years, Dr. Kelly’s team predicts. The exact timing of Supernova Refsdal’s reappearance depends on how the dark matter in the galaxy cluster is distributed, which will tell astronomers much about a part of the universe they cannot see any other way. The longer the path length or the stronger the gravitational field the light ray goes through, the longer the delay.

Because of the expansion of the universe, the star and its galaxy are receding from us so fast that, according to relativity, clocks there appear to run markedly more slowly than clocks here. As a result, two months from the point of view of the supernova corresponds to nearly six months on Earth.

From our point of view, Dr. Kelly said, “it’s going on in slow motion.”

A star might die only once, but with Einstein’s telescope, if you know where to look, you can watch it scream forever.
The classes and the races to weak to master the new conditions of life must give way {..} They must perish in the revolutionary holocaust --Karl Marx
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First Flight Millenium Falcon, may the Force be with you

Postby Alexis » Tue Mar 17, 2015 4:58 pm

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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Heracleum Persicum » Sat Mar 28, 2015 4:33 am

.


Russia & US agree to build new space station after ISS



In a landmark decision, Russian space agency Roscosmos and its US counterpart NASA have agreed to build a new space station after the current International Space Station (ISS) expires. The operation of the ISS was prolonged until 2024.

“We have agreed that Roscosmos and NASA will be working together on the program of a future space station," Roscosmos chief Igor Komarov said during a news conference on Saturday.



Hmmmm


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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Heracleum Persicum » Sat Apr 18, 2015 4:35 pm




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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby noddy » Mon May 25, 2015 2:31 am



the title sucks, id call it 'technology from places you are still allowed to have fun with out permission'
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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Nonc Hilaire » Mon May 25, 2015 2:00 pm

noddy wrote:

the title sucks, id call it 'technology from places you are still allowed to have fun with out permission'


Very cool on the big screen.
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Re: Astronomy and Space

Postby Heracleum Persicum » Sun May 31, 2015 4:02 pm

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Re: Russian space rocket engines, are they better ?

Postby Typhoon » Wed Jun 03, 2015 3:42 am

Heracleum Persicum wrote:.



“We are committed to deliver 60 engines. Three options have been signed, each for 20 engines,”


Russia’s government has already issued all the permits required for the deal. The contract envisages restrictions for the use of RD-181 engines in military programs as those rockets cannot be used for military goals



cost and reliability key .. Russian engine very reliable and cheap .. one engine which exploded recently, was "modified" against the manufacturer's recommendation


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Russian Statement on Proton Rocket Failure Leaves Questions



Chemical rocket launches continue to be a risky business.
All the world's a stage.
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